Research: Multilateral Negotiations: The Emerging Negotiating Model In The International Labour Organization

The negotiating model or framework adopted at the formation of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1919 placed the representatives of workers and employers on an equal footing with government representatives in decision making (Maupain 2013). The tripartite arrangement makes the ILO a unique agency within the United Nations system (Simpson, 1994). However, the configuration of the government group evolved during and after the cold war resulting in complex multi- layers of negotiating units (Newman et al, 2006; Muldoon et al; 2010; Hampson & Heinbecker 2011). Furthermore, there are issues around the “paper” balance of power between governments and social partners in the negotiation processes let alone the representativeness of those that negotiate on behalf of the workers and employers (Thomas, 1996; Muldoon et al, 2010; Standing, 2010). The contemplated research will explore and analyse the inter-actor relationships and the attributes of the negotiating model or framework in the ILO

Research: The Role of Mediation In Promoting International Trade And Investment

Resolving international conflicts between states is vital in facilitating the growth of international trade and development, and to encourage foreign investment across nations. The persistence of conflicts among nations has proved to be detrimental to economic growth and development for the parties involved in the conflict. Authors such as Kremeni︠u︡k (1991), Zartman (1999) and Bercovitch (2007) argue in favour of implementing conflict resolution techniques such as negotiation and mediation in resolving international disputes. The responsibility for implementing these techniques lies with the foreign policy makers and business leaders within nations to encourage the mitigation of conflict, failing which the nations would face setbacks in their economic output and eventually their overall international image. This would ultimately result in the absence of a potent scenario in which international trade and investment can flourish.