Article: Social Media Networks And Leadership Ethics In Healthcare

Social media has penetrated intrapersonal and professional communication, particularly among a younger generation of healthcare professionals and patients who have grown up in the digital age of communication. Social media tools provide a unique set of opportunities in healthcare, but with these new opportunities come a number of potential challenges. As health leaders navigate the increasingly complex world of social media, concerns have arisen regarding questions of ethics and professionalism and how the use of social media fits within the social contract between the medical profession and society. This article describes the changing parameters of professional conduct in digital environments and proposes a set of considerations and recommendations for health leaders to navigate this new frontier.

Article: Balancing Expectations: An Unmet Need In The Orphan Disease Arena

There are between 6000 and 8000 rare diseases in the world, and one in ten people in Europe and the US have a rare disease; 75% of rare diseases affect children, and 30% of rare disease patients die before the age of 51. Over 95% of these rare diseases have no treatment options available—instilling a devastating burden on patients and their families2. While the pharmaceutical industry is focusing on innovation to address this significant unmet need among patients, such dedication is not entirely altruistic. Commercial opportunity in orphan medicinal products (OMPs) is estimated to reach $209bn by 2022 and constitute one of the largest growing parts within the prescription drug segment3, continuously drawing investment from small, medium and large companies alike.

Research: Drinking Water-Private Or Public: A Case Study Of The Canadian Industry

Within Canada, the subject of Water-Taking Permits for the purpose of resale (bottled water) has created controversy which is both historical and ongoing (The Council of Canadians, 2010; Bueckert, 2016). Current data indicates that almost 9 million Canadian residents depend on their local groundwater for potable water use and that these same sources also supply water to larger communities, and further that many of these groundwater sources are also used by businesses (The Government of Ontario, 2013; ECCC, 2013). Several stakeholders are involved, namely: respective levels of government, the industry engaged in Water-Taking for bottled resale, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) advocating for water security, and consumers who are the ultimate end users of water either bottled or from source. Within the theory domains, research and discussion on Governance, Social Justice and Social Goods, and Resource and Environmental Economics, along with Public and Private Partnerships are explored with a view to understanding the theortetical components of contemplated research in additional to secondary technical data and information. The research seeks to analyse the persectives from the stakeholders via interviews and compare the results with a view towards better understanding the issue and identifying the views of Canadian consumers as an important economic factor.

Dissertation: Corporate Citizenship of Pharmaceutical Multinationals in Emerging Markets: A Study of HPV Vaccination in India

Half a million women die each year of cervical cancer (Dabash, Vajpayee , & Jacob , 2005). Human papillomavirus, also called HPV, is the most common sexually transmitted infection. It is transmitted through genital and sexual contact and almost all cervical cancer is caused by HPV (C.D.C., 2012). One fifth of the global burden of the disease is in India with approximately 130,000 new cases each year (Dabash, Vajpayee , & Jacob , 2005) and about 73,000 women die of cervical cancer annually, the primary cause of death in women (W.H.O., 2010). In Europe, new stakeholders have appeared with HPV vaccination such as: scientific societies, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), cancer leagues, women’s associations and patient groups (Laurent-Ledru, Thomson, & Monsenegro, 2010). The public’s main source of information about the disease and vaccination has mainly been through online medical websites. In response to this trend, there has been an evolution in healthcare where the patient makes the choice for himself (Laurent-Ledru, Thomson, & Monsenegro, 2010). Also, the newer avenues for information dissemination provided by social media outlets like YouTube, Blogger, Facebook and Twitter have a tremendous potential for delivering information and in some cases have led to the increased empowerment of the public and civil society (Laurent-Ledru, Thomson, & Monsenegro, 2010).

Article: Increasing Access to Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage Interventions For Births In Health Facilities And At Home In Four Districts Of Rwanda

To assess coverage, acceptability, and feasibility of a program to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at community and facility levels, a study was conducted in 60 health facilities and their catchment areas in four districts in Rwanda. A total of 220 skilled birth attendants at these facilities were trained to provide active management of the third stage of labor and 1994 community health workers (ASMs) were trained to distribute misoprostol at home births. A total of 4,074 pregnant women were enrolled in the program (20.5% of estimated deliveries). Overall uterotonic coverage was 82.5%: 85% of women who delivered at a facility received a uterotonic to prevent PPH; 76% of women reached at home at the time of birth by an ASM ingested misoprostol–a 44.3% coverage rate. Administration of misoprostol at the time of birth for home births achieved moderate uterotonic coverage. Advancing the distribution of misoprostol through antenatal care services could further increase coverage.

Article: Experiences Engaging Community Health Workers to Provide Maternal and Newborn Health Services

A paucity of skilled health providers is a considerable impediment to reducing maternal, infant, and under-five mortality for many low-resource countries. Although evidence supports the effectiveness of community health workers (CHWs) in delivering primary healthcare services, shifting tasks to this cadre from providers with advanced training has been pursued with overall caution—both because of difficulties determining an appropriate package of CHW services and to avoid overburdening the cadre. We reviewed programs in Rwanda, Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Nepal where tasks in delivery of health promotion information and distribution of commodities were transitioned to CHWs to reach underserved populations. The community-based interventions were complementary to facility-based interventions as part of a comprehensive approach to increase access to basic health services. Drawing on these experiences, we illuminate commonalities, lessons learned, and factors contributing to the programs’ implementation strategies to help inform practical application in other settings.

Article: Evolution of Malaria in Pregnancy Control

Malaria continues to be a life-threatening illness throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, with pregnant women and children being particularly vulnerable and an estimated 10 000 women and 200 000 newborns dying each year as a result of malaria in pregnancy (MIP). Since 2004, WHO has supported a three-pronged MIP approach: (1) intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine; (2) use of insecticide-treated bed nets; and (3) effective case management. The present article identifies benchmarks in Jhpiego’s 10-plus years of MIP experience at the regional and national levels that have contributed to its global MIP leadership and aligned programs and policies with global approaches toward malaria elimination. As countries continue to develop and expand MIP programming, support will continue to be essential in the following eight MIP program areas: integration, policy, capacity development, community engagement, quality assurance, commodities, monitoring and evaluation, and financing.

Article: Implementing Facility-Based Kangaroo Mother Care Services

Some countries have undertaken programs that included scaling up kangaroo mother care. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the implementation status of facility-based kangaroo mother care services in four African countries: Malawi, Mali, Rwanda and Uganda. The integration of kangaroo mother care into routine newborn care services should be part of all maternal and newborn care initiatives and packages. Engaging ministries of health and other implementing partners from the outset may promote buy in and assist with the mobilization of resources for scaling up kangaroo mother care services. Mechanisms for monitoring these services should be integrated into existing health management information systems.